The God-given Human Rights, Social Laws and Social System

by Manfred Davidmann

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Contents

Introduction

Good and Evil and the Difference between Them

Unavoidable Consequences of One's Behaviour
Planet-wide Danger

Humane Behaviour
Trustful Co-operation (Ten Commandments)
Morality (Men and Women, Family and Family Purity)
Social and Moral Problems of Our Times

Social Strength
Social and Economic Security
Work and Leisure
Weekly Day of Rest
Sabbatical Year

Freedom, Liberty and Independence
Government and Management
Equality and Ownership

The Worldwide Struggle for God-given Human Rights
Freedom, Liberty and Independence
Defence
Responsibility and Accountability

Conclusion

Relevant Current and Associated Works

Notes <..>

References {..} and Links

Relevant Subject Index Pages and Site Overview



Introduction

This report is a comprehensive statement of the God-given human rights which underlie all human freedom, liberty and independence, which underlie and determine a good life of high quality. People at all stages of development are struggling to achieve these rights and benefits, all over the planet.

These human rights, these social rules and this social system, are the very foundation of the three main religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

When the Pentateuch <1> was written, people had but little knowledge about science or evolution compared with what is known today. So concepts for which we now have precise terms were described rather than stated. Instead of the term 'scientific law' being used, for example, we see described that 'what is written applies to all people, present or absent, past or future, will happen regardless of how one feels about it, that the results of certain actions are reversed if the actions are reversed'. <2>

And concepts and descriptions were expressed in religious terms so that they could be understood and followed by the population.


What these religions have in common is that in each case a ruling elite succeeded in bypassing or overturning the religion's essential God-given benevolent social provisions and human rights {1, 2, 14-15, 6-9}, in this way exposing their communities and whole populations to oppression and exploitation.

Now that our technological progress so vastly exceeds our social organisation and behaviour, the survival of our species is in doubt. Hence the urgency of the need to apply these rules of behaviour in our daily lives.

This report aims to show what needs to be done and how it can be achieved.


Good and Evil and the Difference between Them    {3}

The first volume of the Pentateuch (Genesis) describes how plants and animals were formed, evolved and populated the planet. It describes how the behaviour of successive life forms changed as they evolved into human beings. {3}

Evolution had turned into a bitter struggle for the survival of the fittest, where the most fittest was the most vicious and violent. The most 'advanced' species was the species which was the most vicious. Life was brutal and dominated by evil. This is how reptiles came to dominate the earth.

Then mammals evolve from reptiles, and develop feelings of care and affection towards others. Genesis describes {3} that from them evolved a mammalian human-like life form (homo erectus) whose behaviour was more beast-like than human, without knowledge of good and evil and unable to distinguish between them.

Genesis states {3} that if there is to be further development towards good then there has to be knowledge of and understanding of good and evil and of the difference between them so that people can choose between them. And that consequently the human brain evolved from the mammalian brain.

The increased brain capacity and the evolution of the neocortex {10} enable humans (Homo sapiens) to know the difference between good and evil and human beings with their larger brains spread across the planet and replaced Homo erectus.

In this way the Pentateuch, in religious language, records {3} the evolution (creation) and behaviour of human beings who know of, can distinguish between and can choose between, good and evil.

The human brain underlies free will, enabling us to decide independently whether to do good or evil, that is what to do or not to do.

But this needs to be supplemented with the ability to think clearly, to assess and evaluate on the basis of knowledge of good and evil and of the essential need for behaving humanely, for following (doing) good instead of evil.

It is here that the relevance and importance of the Pentateuch's social laws and teachings <3> become apparent. The Pentateuch adds to mere mechanistic and chance processes the knowledge that human beings need to, and have to, behave humanely if they wish to prosper and succeed. Stating clearly what is, and is not, humane behaviour, clearly defining the difference between good (including human rights and justice) and evil, adding that human beings stand or fall by the way they behave. {12}

And it is the God-given social laws and social system of the Pentateuch which define and state human rights and behaviour which people need to follow if they wish to prosper and succeed, if they wish to have a high standard of living and a life of high quality.


Unavoidable Consequences of One's Behaviour (Social Cause-and-Effect Relationship  <2>  {12} )

A covenant is an agreement in which each of the parties undertakes duties and obligations towards the other. And the Pentateuch records God's promise that human beings will have a good life of high quality as long as human beings fulfil their obligations under the covenant, as long as human beings follow God's laws, as long as they behave like human beings. <4>

This is also recorded in the Pentateuch as a fundamental scientific law, the Social Cause-and-Effect Relationship {12} <2>, in the language of religion. This states that the consequences of keeping or not keeping the Pentateuch's laws are inescapable, that what happens to one is in the end the inevitable result of one's own behaviour. Also clearly stated is that this is a scientific law which was defined and stated using the language of religion so that people would benefit from knowing the effects (consequences) of their behaviour. The relationship is stated in precise terms. History {2} and social science {21} confirm it.

We are told that the relationship applies to all without exception and at all times, wherever one may be, regardless of type of government, form of religion or social system or country. It applies whether you like it or not, agree or disagree.

The consequences of one's behaviour are detailed both ways, clearly and powerfully illustrating intermediate stages between the two ends of the scale, and we are told that the process is reversible: Increasingly disregarding the laws (rules of behaviour) results in greater suffering and oppression, increasingly behaving according to the laws results in greater freedom, liberty, independence and a better life.


The relationship applies to all. Ignorance is no excuse, not knowing the law does not prevent consequences of one's behaviour, and the relationship is stated in a way which enables people to benefit from knowing the effects of their behaviour, even if they do not understand the underlying relationship.

The relationship is clearly stated in the Pentateuch {12}, confirmed by Jesus {1} and then by Mohammed. The Koran records Mohammed repeatedly confirming the Pentateuch, referring to it both as a guide and as a warning {9}, and Arab and Muslim history illustrates the working of the cause-and-effect relationship.

Freedom and independence of mind and person and the quality of life depend on one's behaviour. The consequences of one's behaviour are inevitable, inescapable. Keeping or disregarding the Pentateuch laws has consequences which cannot be avoided. Whole communities prosper or suffer (are 'persecuted') as a consequence of their individual and thus collective behaviour.

Those who behave according to the law have good and satisfying lives, gain social and military strength. Behaviour which is contrary to the law lowers the quality of life, increases internal stress and conflict to the point of social disruption and military weakness.

If we want freedom, independence, good life of high quality, then we have to follow these laws. If we do not, then we lose freedom, independence, good life and the country in which we live. The consequences of our behaviour cannot be avoided but we can change the course of events by changing our behaviour.


Planet-wide Danger

By the end of the twentieth century a new factor had entered the equation. {21}

Up to now when some people suffered, when a village was wiped out in a war fought for the benefit of another establishment, when a whole country and its people were devastated, it did not mean the end of humanity. The point is that as a result of the impact of technology and increasing speed of transport and communication it is possible for the first time in the history of human beings on this planet for just one or only a very few socially irresponsible persons to do something or to introduce changes which could destroy us all as human beings or else make this planet uninhabitable for human beings.

I showed twenty years ago in 'Social Responsibility, Profits and Social Accountability' {21} that we were experiencing a sequence of accidents and catastrophes which were occurring more and more frequently and were affecting more and more people.

Since then most people have become aware of this. But I also showed what could and should be done about this trend of events.

So now we do not have a choice. If we do not now observe and put into effect the social laws (rules) and social system of the Pentateuch and its code of behaviour then the planet will become uninhabitable for human beings.


Humane Behaviour


Trustful Co-operation (Ten Commandments)

The Ten Commandments <5> are so important and are so well known because it is behaviour in accordance with these rules of behaviour which is the basis for people trusting each other and so for people co-operating and working well with each other. They underlie freedom, independence and strength to oppose and resist oppression. Wherever there is any independence of the mind and material freedom today it exists because people followed these rules of behaviour and it exists to the extent to which they do so. To free ourselves from mental manipulation, conditioning and brainwashing we need to follow them. {12}

In other words, following the provisions of the law results in freedom and ensures it, ensures strength and security. {17}


Take these two commandments (principles of behaviour):
You must not steal.
You must not desire anything which belongs to your neighbour.

Much trust and community friendliness is gained when people follow these principles.

But look around you. These principles are at times applied ruthlessly to protect the possessions of the rich from the starving poor who see no other way to survive apart from stealing some scraps of food.

I may be overstating the case so as to make a point. But consider that these laws apply equally to the rich and powerful. It is also the rich and powerful who must not steal from the poor even the little which the poor have. It is the rich and powerful who must not cast longing glances at what little the rest of us possess, it is the rich and powerful who must not aim to gain at our expense.

And now consider this {24}:

Shareholders would not even consider handing their moneys over to a corporation without in return becoming an owner of a corresponding part of the corporation, without getting a corresponding number of shares in return.

But customers are not given a choice. Corporations (their owners) simply take their customers' moneys
(a) for getting back money already spent on the business and
(b) for expanding the business
without in return giving customers (or the community) corresponding ownership rights.

To 'rob' is to take unlawfully. But we are here looking at moneys being taken legally and largely without the owners' (customers') knowledge or agreement.

What is taking place is perhaps best described as 'legalised robbery'.

What we see is a people divided against each other, conflict and struggle.


We are resisting oppression and exploitation and building a better world for ourselves and our children. Our strength depends on co-operation between men and women, on the family, on developing our human potential by controlling the sexual urge, on being able to trust each other and rely on each other. Consider these commandments {12}:
You must not commit murder.
You must not bear false witness against your neighbour.
You must not commit adultery.

People who behave promiscuously (permissively) have sexual relations before marriage, or after marriage with a person other than their spouse. Promiscuity turns men against women, and women against men, and robs both of the support of their family {13, 16}. Hence this prohibition of promiscuous behaviour. <6>


Another commandment <5> is
Honour your father and your mother and willingly accept the stated principles of behaviour, and the tradition, knowledge and life experience of your parents so that you will progress and advance in understanding and in life and so that you will have long and secure lives of high quality in the land in which you live.

In other words, when your parents believe in the principles stated here, and apply them in their daily lives, then one must learn and respect these teachings. One must not be led astray, no matter how plausible the persuading voices or images in one's social environment seem to be. In one's impressionable years one must not be led astray from the principles of behaviour stated here as these principles underlie freedom and independence and a good and secure life of high quality.


Morality (Men and Women, Family and Family Purity)   {16}

Genesis <7> shows human beings becoming aware of the existence of good and evil and of the difference between them, shows human beings learning to choose that which is good and gaining social strength and good lives of high quality as a result. It is about human beings struggling to stop behaving like our beastlike primitive ancestors and instead doing what is good, learning to behave like human beings, to behave humanely.

And underlying humane behaviour is the need, the necessity, to control and overcome the brutalising influences we are struggling against, to control the sex impulse, so as to achieve good lives of high quality.


And what we have in the Pentateuch are rules of behaviour which point to the essence of humane behaviour. We know that ignoring them results in social corruption, oppression and exploitation of the many by the few. And we know that following these rules ensures social strength and a good life for all. {12}

Normal for human beings is an exclusive sexual relationship between husband and wife within a monogamous single life-long relationship (family) which ensures the young are protected for the many years before they reach maturity, and which protects and supports husband and wife as they grow old. On marriage the male accepts responsibility for the resulting family for life. {3, 13}

For a comprehensive review of the role of the family and of a family's members, of the impact of casual sexual relations on individuals, family and community, on the effect of increasing lifespans, on dominance, oppression and exploitation within and without the family, on teamwork within the family, on the effects of promiscuous behaviour on social strength of individuals and communities, see {13}.

Those who behave humanely, morally, can trust each other, cooperate with each other, grow, gain strength together, prosper.


All other sexual relations are abnormal and we are told {16} the effects (consequences) of inhuman beastlike (unrestrained, uncontrolled) sexual behaviour.

Those who behave immorally weaken their family and social strength. Those who initiate moral behaviour, who behave morally and humanely, gain strength and standing, and those who support them in this are supported in return. Confirmed by history {12, 2}, we see it taking place all around us.

And sexual relations outside marriage are prohibited before and during marriage.

A clear way of stating
the importance of chastity,
that human beings can and do control their sexual urges,
the importance and necessity for the human male to control the beastlike sexual urge lurking at the border of the conscious.


Sodomy, having sexual relations between persons of the same sex, is unnatural and abnormal, corrupting and destructive of human society and humane behaviour, is punished with utmost severity.

And incest, having sexual relations between members of a close or extended family, is abnormal, corrupting and destructive of family trust, family life and family strength. Incest is primitive beastlike behaviour and perpetrators are punished with utmost severity.

The Pentateuch contains detailed statements about what constitutes abnormal, promiscuous, adulterous sexual relations and prostitution, with associated comments and severe penalties. <8>


Morality and family, individual and social strength, are interrelated. Morality more than any other factor determines the strength and well-being of individuals, families and communities. So morality is of determining importance and these laws of behaviour need to be protected, applied and enforced.


Social and Moral Problems of Our Times

The consequences of immorality cannot be avoided. {12} <2>

The Pentateuch's warnings, punishments and penalties concerning morality are in most cases to the male. It is males who are behind the corrupting of family morality and who are attempting to brutalise women so as to make women more readily available for sex. Even brainwashing and manipulating women into making themselves available. With consequent weakening and breaking up of family, society and quality of life. {13}

Conditioning, persuading, inducing or compelling a person to have sex before marriage, person to person or through the media, is in my opinion an act of rape. The younger the person, the worse is the offence.

Morality has to be protected by punishing immorality, by protecting women and punishing men and women who behave immorally. By punishing those who spread immorality and seduce others into immoral behaviour.


In democracies or when people are struggling for their liberty, authoritarians condone and promote promiscuity so as to weaken the family and weaken the population. People are subjected to conditioning towards immorality to weaken the working population to make them easier to exploit, to weaken the society and democracy. <9>

But when in control, dictatorships of left or right or religious absolutist hierarchies then pedal back to gain strength for their people, so that they will fight for and protect, and slave for, their manipulating rulers. <10>


Hence the importance of morality, of Pentateuch morality and laws of behaviour, of protecting communities and people by restraining immoral behaviour, conditioning and propaganda, by appropriately punishing the perpetrators.


Social Strength

The Pentateuch states what has to be done and what is prohibited, by positive and negative rules of behaviour. {2}

Positive rules state what has to be done so as to create a just and strong society. And point the way ahead towards greater strength, freedom, liberty and a good way of life.

Negative rules (prohibitions) state what must not be done and such rules protect the people from oppression and exploitation, from the antisocial behaviour of others, safeguard the people's strength and freedom.


But support and co-operation have to be two-way flows. The community supports the individual but only if the individual supports the community. Those supported by the community are under obligation to support others in need of support, when able to do so, to share with others who are in need. Where 'need' includes the need for capital to secure their operation, to achieve the general standard of living and quality of life.

Which means that benefits and support from the community are given only to those who believe in its benevolent principles and live accordingly. 'Supporting the community' includes helping to spread knowledge and understanding of its principles. <11>

Throughout, it is only those who themselves keep and apply the benevolent social laws given in this report in their daily lives who are entitled to these rights. Otherwise, to give but one example, funds provided by the community free-of-interest to a non-member (stranger) might be used by the stranger to exploit people by lending funds to others and charging interest so as to enrich himself.


Social and Economic Security

All persons have the right to be free and independent masters of their own fate and no person may oppress or exploit another. Because people can be exploited through their needs there has to be a system of social and economic security which guarantees freedom from needs and so protects people from becoming dependent on others for essential income, protects against loss of material independence and which protects them from losing their spiritual independence.

Every community member is entitled as a matter of right to social security <12>. This means that community members are entitled to be supported by the community not only when they fall on hard times but also to maintain their independence as independent breadwinners for their families. For example, the community has to provide backup funds to those who need them and they have to be provided as and when required.

To prevent people being exploited through their need these funds have to be provided without charging interest. They are called 'loans' because the recipient is under moral obligation to repay them to the community if he can do so. However, such 'loans' are cancelled every seventh calendar year if the borrower has been unable to repay them. <11>

These essential social provisions of the Pentateuch are clear and to the point. This is what is laid down as a matter of law {12}:

  1. The community has to provide ('lend') money to those who need it, free of interest.
  2. All such loans, if outstanding, are to be cancelled every seventh year.


Work and Leisure


Weekly Day of Rest

Every seventh day is a day of rest for all, for those who are employed as well as for those who employ. Work stops on the weekly day of rest, the Sabbath, to let those who labour have a regular day of rest. On this day the servant is as free as the master, the worker is as free as the employer. The weekly day of rest has spread and benefits almost all the civilised world. {12}  <11>


Sabbatical Year

Community members are entitled to a sabbatical year every seventh year. During this year they are entitled to be freed from work at the expense of the community. <13>   {12}

Academics already enjoy regular sabbatical years. During this period they are paid their salaries. {19}

Free to travel, train for more skilled or better work, update knowledge, study, gain greater understanding, qualify. Those on a sabbatical must not work for pay, or produce to sell, during that year but receive the average rate earned by community members during the previous calendar year. <11>

Consider what sabbatical years would mean. For you and for others who would during such a year be free to do as they pleased. We could have much more satisfying lives, we could do much for our own communities, could do much for those in need, for those who are underdeveloped and unable to afford our own expert skills. {19}  <14>


Freedom, Liberty and Independence

The words freedom, liberty and independence are usually given subtly different meanings, as follows:
Freedom     The right and power to act, speak, or think freely.
Liberty   The state of being free from oppression or imprisonment.
Independence   Self governing and not depending on another for livelihood or subsistence.

Freedom, liberty and independence go hand-in-hand, support and complement each other. Liberty includes being free from slavery or despotic control by others, means being free from social, economic, political, mental or physical control by others, means being free from antisocial control or manipulation by others. And independence includes not being dependent on, and not being controlled by, another person, group, organisation, or thing.

But it is the social rules and social system of the Pentateuch which in effect state that all are equal, that no person may exploit another or oppress so as to exploit. All have the right to be free and independent masters of their own fate and there has to be a system of social security which guarantees not just freedom from need but also protection against loss of material and spiritual independence.


Government and Management

Here we are looking at the laws of the Pentateuch which control the behaviour and limit the power {12, 2} of government, of top executives and of the establishment, of those in positions of trust, responsibility or authority. The Pentateuch {11} leaves little doubt about what they must not do.

We saw already that

Positive laws state what has to be done so as to create a just and strong society. And point the way ahead towards greater strength, freedom, liberty and a good way of life.

Negative laws (prohibitions) state what must not be done and such laws protect the people from oppression and exploitation, from the antisocial behaviour of others, safeguard the people's strength and freedom.

And so the laws quoted here protect people, safeguard their strength and freedom, and need to be applied.


These laws of government relate to 'rulers', apply to all in positions of trust, responsibility or authority, no matter whether secular, religious or military, no matter what the hierarchy or organisation.

Such people may not amass servants and may not oppress the people for their own benefit. They may not amass possessions and wealth, may not grasp power or behave promiscuously.

In other words, they may not put themselves above others by grasping power, may not satisfy personal desires at the expense of others.


And a ruler (person in position of trust, responsibility or authority) has to follow these laws and abide by them every day if he wishes 'to prolong his days in his kingdom, he and his children'. For 'kingdom' read 'position' and include 'influence'.


So the Pentateuch laws quoted here protect people and safeguard their strength and freedom by laying down that those in positions of trust, responsibility or authority may not grasp power, may not oppress the people, may not behave promiscuously, may not enrich themselves. Those in authority must not oppress people so as to increase their own possessions and power, must not form enforcing squads or organisations so as to multiply their own power, must not behave promiscuously, must not gain wives or wealth. {12}


Equality and Ownership

Ownership {24} is the right to possess something and to decide what is to be done with it. If I own something it belongs to me and I decide what is to be done with it. An example would be owning a house.

Possession is having something in one's custody as distinct from owning it. If I possess something it belongs to another but I can decide how to use it. An example would be renting a house.

Another example would be deciding what to do with my money (ownership) or deciding and controlling the use of money belonging to someone else (possession).


And considering the right to ownership, two questions need to be considered. Namely where does the right come from and how is it exercised.


The right to own property varies among societies. Ownership laws which assign ownership 'rights' to owners have been devised by the owners themselves or by those who serve them. {20}

Ownership of land and means of production, of funds and wealth, has always been accumulated at someone else's expense. All belonged to the community, belonged to all alike. And this is what Chapter 5 of Genesis appears to be saying {18}.

A human right is a something one may legally or morally claim, is the state of being entitled to a privilege or immunity or authority to act. Human rights are those held to be claimable by any living person, apply to all living people. Every living person is entitled to them.

So ownership of land and means of production, of funds and wealth, rightfully belongs to the community, belongs to all alike, is a human right. Those who have accumulated them have only possession, which means they can use and apply them but may do so only on behalf of, and for the benefit of, the community and that they are accountable to the community for the way in which they do so. {19}


Hence we have the use of possessions as long as we use them to provide a good living for our family, and beyond that for the benefit of the community. For the benefit of others less able or fortunate, for the benefit of the community around us and then for the benefit of communities abroad.

But we may only support those who themselves genuinely support our benevolent ideals and principles and their application and who themselves live and act accordingly, who behave humanely. {12} <15>


A maximum differential of two, the maximum gross earnings being twice the minimum earnings, within a country and also between countries, would seem a reasonable target to achieve under present more extreme circumstances. {19}


Bearing this in mind, the country's wealth, and this includes productive assets and capital, including land, enterprise and corporation ownership, property, bank deposits and reserves, belongs equally to all community members and needs to be shared out <16>.

To be shared out family by family {12}, where 'family' is a life-long single union {13} between husband and wife. With shares updated at regular intervals of between three and not more than five calendar years <17>. Each receives a share of the community's total net assets <18>, their 'Asset Share'. An Asset Share cannot be sold but the owner has the right to determine its use and to the resulting benefits.



The Worldwide Struggle for God-given Human Rights {17, 13}


Freedom, Liberty and Independence {17}

Humane behaviour is aimed at survival of the young and of the family, and then is for the good of one's family, other people and the community. It is based on feelings of care and affection for others. From this emerges a sense of social responsibility: people matter and are important, need to be treated well and looked after, are entitled to share equally. Backed up by knowledge, understanding and reason. {10}

We know that dominating others is conditioned, that is unnatural, behaviour which is destructive of humane behaviour. A throw-back to the level of the unthinking unfeeling primitive animal. {10}

Genesis says much in chapters 5 and 6. About inhuman behaviour, about possessions, ownership and riches, about domineering, oppression and misusing people by force.

And knowledge of good and evil enables us to choose that which is good (humane) and to overcome that which is inhumane (beast-like, evil).


These themes are continued in Genesis and in the other four volumes (books) of the Pentateuch. We are told about the obligatory social laws and social system which have to be kept if evil is to be overcome, are told about consequent reward and punishment, justice and retribution, so that human beings can have good lives of high quality.


Those who follow and keep the benevolent social laws of the Pentateuch have in the past been opposed by dictatorships of both right and left, by those who wish to establish and support such dictatorships, by those who wish to oppress so as to exploit people. Openly under dictatorship and in more hidden ways under other forms of government. Dictatorships both of the left and of the right, or those who approve or condone such systems, have also attempted to discredit and wipe out from human memory that which God's prophets teach us, namely the social laws and social system of the Pentateuch. {1, 2, 4, 5}

What we see in the working environment is a worldwide struggle to achieve a humane way of life, each person, family or community struggling to advance at their own level of development, struggling against those who wish to dominate, exploit, oppress. A struggle whose successful outcome depends on trustful cooperation, companionship and teamwork. {13, 23, 22}

The struggle is against those who wish to dominate other people. Against those who want primitive power over others, against those who wish to exploit, against those who may brutally and without feeling oppress human beings so as to exploit them. And 'to exploit' includes the whole range of antisocial decisions and activities of those who put profit before people and community. {21}

Human rights are based on controlling primitive dominant behaviour, on concern, care and affection for our young, for our families, people and communities, and express themselves in cooperation and teamwork between men and women to achieve a good life of high quality.


Defence {13}

Sometimes one has to fight to preserve a good way of life, to prevent others from taking what has been achieved. Or one may be expected to fight on behalf of those who dominate and exploit.

Our primitive animal ancestors behaved instinctively. Hunt for food, kill or be killed, fight or flee. Self before others, regardless of needs of others, marking out and defending territory, might being right.

Later mammals tend to have feelings, care and affection for their young. Human beings think as well as feel, and care for and look after their young for many years.

Having to fight, maim and kill amounts to a throwback to primitive animal behaviour, to behaviour which puts self before others. A throwback to beast-like behaviour for those who attack, to beast-like behaviour to counter beast-like behaviour for those who defend.

But one way of countering viciousness is by greater strength. If attacked, we have to defend ourselves.


Authoritarian organisations are much less effective than participative ones. In authoritarian organisations morale is low, people cease to care and tend to work against each other instead of cooperating with each other for the benefit of the organisation. {25-26}

Human beings cooperate well and achieve effective teamwork. Reason and evaluation can temper (add to, or change) emotional and instinct-motivated behaviour and combine with cooperation and teamwork so as to counter, and overcome, threats.

One has to be stronger than the enemy, socially as well as militarily. Essential is greater social as well as military strength. But the authoritarian mind (which includes the military) has to be balanced to prevent it from taking over, has to be motivated towards 'good'.

So we must not allow ourselves to be corrupted by what has to be done when fighting to preserve and secure that which is good, our way of life. Those who fight on our communities' behalf need to know, believe in, and practice, the word of God every day of their lives.


Responsibility and Accountability

Human beings found an effective defence against antisocial manipulations, namely the basic principle that we are responsible and accountable for what we do and how we do it. Obeying an order is no excuse. It does not matter whether the order comes from a secular or religious source or whether it pops up in one's mind. The person taking the decision, the person giving the order, the person carrying out the order, are each responsible for what they do or omit to do, and for the consequences.


Conclusion

So what one aims to achieve is

to apply in our lives, and in the communities in which we live, the God-given benevolent social laws and social system of the Pentateuch,

so as to achieve a good and secure life of high quality,

by working for the benefit of the community, and

by taking part in the struggle for a better life.

And we need to co-operate with each other as individuals, families and communities, supporting each other in this common struggle for a better life.


It appears that hurt and pain, oppression and exploitation, suffering and hardship, can and should be transformed and countered by an applied sense of social responsibility, by a sense of common purpose and cooperation between people working together in teams. That is by a sense of, and by the satisfaction of, achievement in locating, countering and overcoming the source of the suffering.


Colloquially speaking, there is enough food here for everyone. Pick your ground, pick whichever you think is most important and then use your knowledge, abilities and skills to achieve the good way of life portrayed in this report.

Your life is likely to be a much more rewarding life of higher quality.



Relevant Current and Associated Works
Manfred Davidmann   (www.solhaam.org)

To explore a report's new findings or insights, proposals or recommendations, download the report and read its Introduction, Summary, Contents list, Conclusions and Recommendations. The reports are comprehensive and usually some years ahead of current knowledge at the time of publication.

     
     
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ORIGIN OF CHRISTIANITY and JUDAISM     Proves by methods of biblical archaeology what Jesus really taught, how Paul changed what Jesus had taught, how this became Christianity's official doctrine. Outstanding are sections on Paul and the Gospels, on concurrent corresponding changes in Judaism.
     
History Speaks: Monarchy, Exile and Maccabees   Major review and analysis of Jewish history, of King Solomon's reign and of the Maccabean dynasty, locating the causes of subsequent defeat of the people and loss of country. Covers Jewish belief and practice, social conditions and government.
     
The Meaning of Genesis: Creation, Evolution and the Origin of Evil   Shows that there is no conflict, no contradiction, no divergence, only awe-inspiring agreement, between what is recorded in Genesis and what we know about the evolution of human beings. And Genesis defines good and evil, pointing to the root of evil.
     
Causes of Antisemitism   Shows that there are two separate root causes of antisemitism. One cause can be remedied by increasing peoples' awareness, the other is under the control of the Jewish people and can be remedied from within.
     
Prophet Mohammed's Struggle for a Better Life for All   Mohammed's struggle for recognition of his mission and message against the powerful Meccan ruling elite. They opposed and then persecuted him and his followers for ten years, following which he fought them for ten years till he won and then he died.
     
Text, Language, Dialect and Interpretation of the Koran   How the written Arabic language developed from the time of Mohammed and how the Koran was assembled. How recorded letters and symbols were used to state the meaning of words. Compares 'readings' and interpretations.
     
The Divine Right to Rule   The struggle for power and control over the Muslim community after Mohammed died and how Muslim belief and practice evolved under the caliphs. These events and struggles formed Sunnism and Shiism, shaped the Koran and Muslim belief and practice.
     
Compiling the Koran: Hadiths (Traditions) State the Underlying Reality   Zaid bin Thabit compiled the Koran, Caliph Uthman had an official version prepared. Mohammed taught that people (believers) should have a good life, the ruling elite considered that people should serve willingly.
     
Uthman's Rearrangement of the Chronological (as revealed) Koran's Chapters   Chapters (suras) marked by 'abbreviated letters' show how the sequence of the Koran's chapters was changed. The effects of the changes on the record of Mohammed's preaching and teaching are described as are the doctrines of 'Abrogation' and 'Consensus'.
     
Prophet Mohammed's Word of Allah and the Voice of the Ruling Elite   Mohammed's social teachings are stated from chapters (suras) singled out by 'Abbreviated Letters', statements of revelation from compassionate and caring Allah. It seems that some self-seeking doctrines were added later by the ruling elite of that time.
     
Muslims and Jews   Includes a comprehensive summary table of the struggles of the Muslims while Mohammed was alive, including their conflicts with the Jewish Medinan clans. The conclusions are directly relevant to understanding present tensions and conflicts within Islam.
     
How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works   Describes clearly what happens while sleeping, role of dreaming, meaning of dreams. Functioning of the two halves of the human brain is related to the autonomic nervous and the immune systems. Shows how human behaviour is affected by primitive instincts.
     
Struggle for Freedom: The Social Cause-and-Effect Relationship   Major review and analysis of the social laws and social system of the Torah and of the Social Cause-and-Effect Relationship. Also reviews the role of religion and of Judaism under modern conditions.
     
Family, Sex and the Individual; Women's Liberation, Feminism and Community   This report investigates casual sex and its effects on individuals, family and community. It examines the role of the family in bringing up children and relates dominance and confrontation within the family to that in the working environment.
     
At the Time of Jesus, This is What Actually Happened in Israel: The Truth about Hillel and his Times   Factual conclusive document describing what happened at the time of Jesus to Jewish belief and practice, based on research into texts published close to the events. A fully documented record of previously undiscovered material in the Talmud about Hillel.
     
One Law for All: Freedom Now, Freedom for Ever   Document describing the struggles within Judaism which accompanied the birth of Rabbinical Judaism, how people felt about what was happening, how the Talmud recorded events and what would have to be done to reverse the trend of events.
     
Genesis: Morality, Sexual Behaviour and Depravity   Moral and immoral behaviour and unavoidable consequences. Summarises corresponding present social problems. Describes the Pentateuch's social laws and social system for achieving a good life of high quality.
     
Genesis: Nephilim, Dominance and Liberty   Genesis on consequences of gaining and misusing power over others. Summarises corresponding present social problems. Describes the Pentateuch's social laws and social system for achieving and keeping liberty and a good life of high quality.
     
Genesis' Secrets: Pre-flood Evils and the Social Problems of Our Time   Genesis from pre-flood evil to after-flood behaviour, rewards and punishment. Derives hidden list of pre-flood behaviour in Chapter 5. Summarises corresponding present social problems, describes Bible's social laws and social system for overcoming them.
     
Co-operatives and Co-operation: Causes of Failure, Guidelines for Success   Based on eight studies of co-operatives and mutual societies, the report's conclusions and recommendations cover fundamental and practical problems of co-ops and mutual societies, of members, of direction, of management and control. There are extensive sections on Style of Management, decision-taking, management motivation and performance, on General Management principles and their application in practice.
     
What People are Struggling Against: How Society is Organised for Controlling and Exploiting People   Report of study undertaken to find out why people have to struggle throughout their adult lives, in all countries, organisations and levels, to maintain and improve their standard of living and quality of life. Reviews what people are struggling against.
     
Social Responsibility, Profits and Social Accountability   Incidents, disasters and catastrophes are here put together as individual case studies and reviewed as a whole. We are facing a sequence of events which are increasing in frequency, severity and extent. There are sections about what can be done about this, on community aims and community leadership, on the world-wide struggle for social accountability.
     
Motivation Summary   Reviews and summarises past work in Motivation. Provides a clear definition of 'motivation', of the factors which motivate and of what people are striving to achieve.
     
The Will to Work: What People Struggle to Achieve   Major review, analysis and report about motivation and motivating. Covers remuneration and job satisfaction as well as the factors which motivate. Develops a clear definition of 'motivation'. Lists what people are striving and struggling to achieve, and progress made, in corporations, communities, countries.
     
Understanding How Society is Organised for Controlling and Exploiting People   Describes how corporations (companies) accumulate their capital and reserves from moneys taken from customers. Enterprises are allowed to collect, take over and control such moneys. Cooperatives also take over moneys from their members. And much more.
     
Style of Management and Leadership   Major review and analysis of the style of management and its effect on management effectiveness, decision taking and standard of living. Measures of style of management and government. Overcoming problems of size.
     
Role of Managers Under Different Styles of Management   Short summary of the role of managers under authoritarian and participative styles of management. Also covers decision making and the basic characteristics of each style.


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Notes <..>

< 1>     Also known as the 'Five Books of Moses' and as 'Torah'.
     
< 2>  

In {12} see section on 'The Social Cause-and-Effect Relationship'.

The Social Cause-and-Effect Relationship is also listed (in biblical language and in plain English) in Appendix 4 of {12}, with references to the Pentateuch text.

     
< 3>  

The 'Torah' (Pentateuch, Five Books of Moses) consists only of the five books of Moses.

Those wishing to give other writings an appearance of greater authority refer to these other writings as if they were part of the Torah. Those doing so appear to be spreading a kind of misleading political propaganda.

     
< 4>   In {18} see 'Behaviour and Consequences (Genesis Chapter 9)'
     
< 5>   For a full listing of the Ten Commandments, in biblical and plain English, see Appendix 5 of {12}. For a good discussion of its provisions see {12}.
     
< 6>  

Normal for human beings is an exclusive sexual relationship between a husband and a wife who joined together to form a life-long family so as to ensure that their children are protected for the many years before they reach maturity. And the family protects and supports husband and wife as they grow old. {3, 13}

People who behave humanely, morally, can trust each other, co-operate with each other, grow, gain strength together, prosper.

All other sexual relations are abnormal, immoral. Those who behave immorally weaken their family and social strength. Those who initiate moral behaviour, who behave morally and humanely, gain strength and standing. {16}

Hence the
importance of chastity,
of human beings controlling their sexual urges,
and for the human male to control the sexual urge lurking at
the border of the conscious.

And on marriage the male accepts responsibility for the resulting family for life. {13}

     
< 7>   First volume of the Pentateuch (Five Books of Moses).
     
< 8>   Largely in Leviticus.
     
< 9>   See {13}
     
<10>   See {17}
     
<11>   For more information about, and other listings of, the Pentateuch's social rules of behaviour and about its social system, see {12, 17, 16, 4}
     
<12>   Social security also includes provision covering unemployment, ill health and old age, provided cooperatively {19}. <19>
     
<13>   At present people would take their sabbatical year in turn, one-seventh of the community in any one year, including one-seventh from each of the different occupations.
     
<14>   It must be up to the individual to select and choose what he wants to do. Sabbaticals are not an opportunity for the government, the state, a political party, a religious hierarchy or the management of an organisation to direct or train its employees, to condition through some kind of educational scheme, to pressurise one way or another. {19}
     
<15>   In {18} see 'Social Laws, Social System'
     
<16>   Companies and corporations present annual accounts to their shareholders including Funds Flow statements. Community accounts should be made available also in form of a 'Funds Flow' statement, as these can show clearly in meaningful terms where the funds have come from and what has been done with them. In terms such as 'Received from Income Tax', 'Received from Corporation Tax', 'Spent on Unemployment Benefit', 'Spent on Payments to Corporations', and so on.
     
<17>   At the time the Pentateuch was written, the sharing out of assets was to be updated after every 49 years. At present, updating at regular intervals of between three and not more than five calendar years is more appropriate.
     
<18>   'Net assets' is the amount of money which would be left for distributing among the owners if everything belonging to an enterprise were sold and all its debts paid.
     
<19>   The level of support (such as what proportion of the community's income is to be spent on health care) needs to be decided by the population, for example by referendum on basis of valid clearly-stated information compiled by concerned community groups.


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References {..} and Links  (www.solhaam.org)

     
{ 1}     ORIGIN OF CHRISTIANITY and JUDAISM
     
{ 2}   History Speaks: Monarchy, Exile and Maccabees
     
{ 3}   The Meaning of Genesis: Creation, Evolution and the Origin of Evil
     
{ 4}   Causes of Antisemitism
     
{ 5}   Prophet Mohammed's Struggle for a Better Life for All
     
{ 6}   The Divine Right to Rule
     
{ 7}   Compiling the Koran: Hadiths (Traditions) State the Underlying Reality
     
{ 8}   Uthman's Rearrangement of the Chronological (as revealed) Koran's Chapters
     
{ 9}   Prophet Mohammed's Word of Allah and the Voice of the Ruling Elite
     
{10}   How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works
     
{11}   Pentateuch, Deuteronomy 17: 14-20
     
{12}   Struggle for Freedom: The Social Cause-and-Effect Relationship
     
{13}   Family, Sex and the Individual; Women's Liberation, Feminism and Community
     
{14}   At the Time of Jesus, This is What Actually Happened in Israel: The Truth about Hillel and his Times
     
{15}   One Law for All: Freedom Now, Freedom for Ever
     
{16}   Genesis: Morality, Sexual Behaviour and Depravity
     
{17}   Genesis: Nephilim, Dominance and Liberty
     
{18}   Genesis' Secrets: Pre-flood Evils and the Social Problems of Our Time
     
{19}   Co-operatives and Co-operation: Causes of Failure, Guidelines for Success
     
{20}   What People are Struggling Against: How Society is Organised for Controlling and Exploiting People
     
{21}   Social Responsibility, Profits and Social Accountability
     
{22}   Motivation Summary
     
{23}   The Will to Work: What People Struggle to Achieve
     
{24}   Understanding How Society is Organised for Controlling and Exploiting People
     
{25}   Style of Management and Leadership
     
{26}   Role of Managers Under Different Styles of Management


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RELEVANT SUBJECT INDEX PAGES


Other Subjects; Other Publications


The Site Overview page has links to all individual Subject Index Pages which between them list the works by Manfred Davidmann which are available on the Internet, with short descriptions and links for downloading.

To see the Site Overview page, click Overview

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