THE RIGHT TO THE LAND OF ISRAEL

by Manfred Davidmann



Contents

Summary
Contract and Promise
Promised Land
Covenant
Contract
Social Laws and the Social System of the Torah.
The Social Cause-and-Effect Relationship.
The Law Defines Human Rights
Consequences of One's Behaviour (Social Cause-and-Effect Relationship)
Jewish Belief and Practice at the Present Time
Unaware of the Effects of their Behaviour
Two Thousand Years Ago
The Right to the Land
Laws of Government
Leadership Role of the Establishment
Lessons from History
The Monarchy
Struggle of the Maccabees
Church, State and Religion
Holding the Establishment Accountable
A New Factor has Entered into the Equation
Conclusions
Notes <..> and References {..}

Relevant Current and Associated Works

Relevant Subject Index Pages and Site Overview



Summary

Manfred Davidmann proves that the right to the land in which one lives, that is the strength and success of a people, depends on how people behave towards each other. And this applies to all.

The author shows that the history of the Jewish people provides a clear and convincing example.

Jewish people have been attacked and persecuted over 3,400 years because the Torah states the behaviour which gives strength, which provides a good life of high quality, which ensures independence and freedom from oppression and exploitation.

Jewish people survived because this knowledge about behaviour is essential for the survival of human ways of living on this planet. Now in Israel for the third time they should be establishing a way of living together based on equality, freedom and independence, a good life of high quality for each one, providing an example to be followed by other people.

The Torah clearly states that all must be free and equal, that no one may oppress or exploit another. Manfred Davidmann points out that the Torah records as a scientific law that the consequences of one's behaviour are inescapable. But Jews twice lost their country, were driven out of Israel, because they were unaware of the inevitability with which their own establishment was causing their downfall.

The same process is taking place today. The people are weakening to the point where expulsion and later persecution already appear possible and almost likely. The only way to change the pattern of events and reverse the trend is to change behaviour. The Jewish people need to ensure that the social laws and social system of the Torah are applied, and this means putting pressure on the secular and religious establishment to do so. It is the people who need to put pressure on their establishment to achieve this.

Manfred Davidmann points out that nowadays a new factor has entered into the equation. The impact of technology, of increasing speed of transport and communication, the accelerating speed of change, make it essential and urgent that the social laws and social system of the Torah be followed and applied. Otherwise the planet will become uninhabitable for human beings.


CONTRACT AND PROMISE


Promised Land

Jews have always maintained that Israel is the promised land, that this land called Israel was promised to Jews by God and thus is theirs, that it is their land. This is then taken to mean that there Jews may live just like other people, do as they please, have a state just like any other state.

It is perhaps because this property, this land in which milk and honey flows, has been singled out in such a special way by God, that so many try to benefit from the good life surely granted to all its inhabitants, that so many have struggled and are struggling to own and control this most desirable of all properties.

Persians, Babylonians, Seleucids and Egyptians all had a go as did Macedonians, Romans, Ottomans and Arabs. Christianity and Islam struggled to possess it for many years. Last but not least the Hebrews, the Jews of today, twice gained the country God had promised them only to be driven out later. Returning each time, they have now returned once again and re-established for the third time their rule over the country.

One can understand that such a wonderful gift from God should be in such demand - but how come the land changed hands so frequently, how come the bailiffs came so often and so regularly?


Covenant

Perhaps it is simplistic to consider that God would enter into a one-sided and unconditional commitment, saying "There it is. It is yours to do with as you please" and then turn his back on subsequent proceedings.

There is the matter of the 'Covenant'. It is this which makes Jews the 'chosen' people. At Mount Sinai, Jews in effect agreed the Covenant, that contract between God and the Jewish people by which Jews agreed to accept and observe God's commandments as a matter of law and to be held accountable for the extent to which they did so. On the other hand, God promised that if they observed God's commandments then they and their descendants would live secure lives of high quality in the promised land.

Interesting is that Jews are entitled to stay in Israel and use the land but only to the extent to which the laws are followed and observed. So it appears that the bailiffs have come in so often in the past to expel the land's occupants because they did not observe the essential laws, because they ignored the small print of the agreement, of the contract.


Contract

The contract document, namely the Torah, was written down at the time, has not been changed, is public knowledge.

It lays down in precise terms a comprehensive social system and rules of behaviour which form the basis of, and ensure, a quality of life and a standard of living which have still not been achieved. It also states clearly the rewards for observing and the dire consequences of ignoring or breaking the laws of the Torah.

We are told that the consequences of one's behaviour are inevitable since they are determined by a scientific and inescapable cause-and-effect relationship {1}.

So how did it come about that the Jewish people were expelled twice from the country God promised them with their grip on the country weakening at the present time?

Without a shadow of a doubt the Jewish people lost the country in the past because they did not fulfil their part of the bargain, because they broke the terms of the Covenant. In other words, they behaved in such a way as to weaken themselves as individuals and as a people to the point where their defeat and expulsion into poverty and persecution were inescapable as a consequence of their behaviour and in accordance with the Cause-and-effect relationship.

In the language of religion, the land of Israel does not belong to anyone other than God. Those who live in it may use and benefit from the land but only as long as they follow God's laws. If they do not, then in due course the land is repossessed and transferred to someone else. Ignorance is no excuse. Those who stop following the law lose their entitlement to use it and are in due course driven out and persecuted. History of the Jewish people in Israel proved this again and again. {2}

Hence the right to the land of Israel and the future prosperity of its inhabitants and of the Jewish people depend on following the social laws and the social system of the Torah.

Ignorance is no excuse.

We have to know about these laws and follow them in the light of conditions existing at the present time {5}, if we wish to stay in Israel and prosper.



SOCIAL LAWS AND THE SOCIAL SYSTEM OF THE TORAH.
THE SOCIAL CAUSE-AND-EFFECT RELATIONSHIP.

(The whole of this chapter has been taken verbatim from reference {8}: Causes of Antisemitism)


The Law Defines Human Rights

The Torah's social laws and social system <1> include a statement of scientific social laws of behaviour, of human rights, of social and community organisation.

It is the social laws of the Torah which in effect state that all are equal, that no person may exploit another or oppress so as to exploit. All have the right to be free and independent masters of their own fate and there has to be a system of social security which guarantees not just freedom from need but also protection against loss of material and spiritual independence. In effect, oppression can be and has to be resisted, struggled against and opposed.

The essential social provisions of Torah law are clear and to the point. This is what the Torah lays down as a matter of law {1}:

  1. The community has to provide ('lend') money to those who need it, free of interest.
  2. All such loans, if outstanding, are to be cancelled every seventh year.
  3. The country's wealth, and this applies particularly to productive capital such as land, belongs equally to all and needs to be shared out.
  4. Inhabitants are also entitled to have a sabbatical year every seventh year. During this sabbatical year they are entitled to be freed from work at the expense of the community.

Every person is entitled as a matter of right to social security. This means that people are entitled to be supported by the community not only when they fall on hard times but also to maintain their independence as independent breadwinners for their families. For example, the community has to provide backup funds to those who need them and they have to be provided as and when required.

To prevent people being exploited through their need these funds have to be provided without charging interest and such 'loans' are cancelled every seventh year if the borrower has been unable to repay them.

It is the inhabitants who keep the social laws, who keep Torah law, who are entitled to these rights.


Consequences of One's Behaviour (Social Cause-and-Effect Relationship)

So far we have had a look at the social laws and system of the Torah. But the Torah also clearly states the consequences of keeping or rejecting the social laws and social system of the Torah. {1}

In the language of religion the Torah states a scientific law, the Social Cause-and-effect Relationship {1}, which is that the consequences of keeping or not keeping the Torah laws are inescapable, that what happens to one is in the end the inevitable result of one's own behaviour. Also clearly stated is that this is a scientific law which was defined and stated using the language of religion to get the message across to listeners in such a way that they could understand at least the effects of this 'cause-and-effect relationship'. The relationship is stated in precise terms.

We are told that the cause-and-effect relationship applies to all without exception and at all times, wherever one may be, regardless of type of government, form of religion or social system or country. It applies whether you like it or not, agree or disagree. Freedom and independence of mind and person and the quality of life depend on one's behaviour.

Keeping or not keeping the Torah laws has consequences which cannot be avoided. The consequences are outlined both ways and we are told that the process is reversible. {1}

The Torah lists and describes the actual results of behaviour both ways, clearly and powerfully illustrating intermediate stages between the two ends of the scale. The results of observing the Law are described and so are those of disregarding the Law.

The process is reversible. Increasingly disregarding the Law results in greater suffering and oppression, increasingly behaving according to the Law results in greater freedom and a better life.

The relationship is stated in a way which enables people to benefit from the effects of their behaviour, even if they do not understand the underlying interrelation.

If we want freedom, independence, good life of high quality, then we have to follow these laws. If we do not, then we lose freedom, independence, good life and the country in which we live. This Cause-and-effect Relationship is a scientific law. The consequences of our behaviour cannot be avoided but we can change the course of events by behaving differently.


It so happens that the relationship was stated in the Torah for the first time but this does not change the general validity of the relationship. Statistically speaking, whole communities prosper or suffer (are 'persecuted') as a consequence of their individual and thus collective behaviour.

Not knowing the law does not prevent consequences of one's behaviour.



Jewish Belief and Practice at the Present Time.


Unaware of the Effects of their Behaviour

The social laws of the Torah are now but vaguely understood and commonly disregarded. Few are aware of their existence as a practical social system.

What is remarkable is that at the present time the Jewish people are unaware of the need to keep the laws, of the need to implement the social system and laws of behaviour which would guarantee their survival and security and a high standard of living in the land of Israel at the present time.

How come?


Two Thousand Years Ago

According to Torah law the role of those who are rich is seen to be that of administering money on behalf of the community and not that of enriching themselves at the expense of the community. People are entitled to support from the community not just when hungry or starving but so as to maintain their independence and improve their security.

Those who were wealthy simply did not wish to provide funds (to those who needed them) without charging interest and in the knowledge that the 'loan' would be cancelled after some years if it could not be repaid by those who remained in need.

As the community failed to ensure that those who were wealthy obeyed and followed the laws, they (the rich and powerful) had the laws changed on their own behalf to suit themselves. {2, 3, 4}


So about two thousand years ago, just before and during the formative years of Christianity, the Jewish establishment of that time argued against the social system of the Torah and succeeded in having the core laws, which prevented them from exploiting people, bypassed and the whole social system abrogated, in effect annulled. {3, 4, 5}

They did so by having their religious 'experts' argue against these laws over a considerable period of time and in this way they succeeded in bypassing the social legislation.

But the changes the establishment of the time was making were so drastic that 'the law was becoming like two laws'. These changes and what was happening were recorded in what is now known as the Talmud. Even so, the establishment of the day attempted to hide what was actually being said by abstract arguments and sheer volume of words and succeeded to the extent that the memory of what they had done faded away into the background.

While this process took place and while the establishment changed Jewish religious belief and practice there were some who would not agree and recorded what was happening and how it was being done. Others, unable to change the course of events, formed communities who attempted to follow the fair and just social legislation. {5}


THE RIGHT TO THE LAND

What is outstandingly important is that the Cause-and-effect relationship applies to all people and at all times, and history bears this out. {1}

Indeed it is Scripture which clearly lists the kind of behaviour which caused Jews to be driven out from Israel on previous occasions.

History clearly and convincingly illustrates the working of the relationship through successive periods of exile and return to Erez Israel. The events speak for themselves. There is no need to keep repeating the same mistakes. {11}


Laws of Government {1, 2}

The laws of government in the Torah lay down in effect that it is the establishment which should serve the people and not the people serving the establishment.

The leadership, the establishment, may not enrich themselves, may not form enforcing organisations or systems, may not have a better quality of life than that of the community.


Leadership Role of the Establishment

The Jewish religion teaches that all are equal and that one may neither exploit nor be exploited, and sets out a social system for ensuring that these laws are applied, for ensuring that Jewish rulers and establishments serve their people.

The social system guarantees everyone's personal and material independence with the community supporting those who are in need, supporting those whose independence is threatened or those who wish to establish their own material independence, say by setting up their own enterprise.

The role of the establishment is to lead you in the struggle for a better and more secure life of better quality, struggling with you and for you and living as you do and at your standard of living.

However, it is much easier to tell the rich to share their wealth than actually convince them to do so. But history has proved beyond any doubt that the consequences of one's behaviour are as stated. The reason some of our lives resemble hell rather than heaven is because we have been unable to ensure that all are equal, because we have allowed some of us to oppress and exploit the others.



Lessons from History


The Monarchy

During the period of the monarchy, that is during the period of Saul, David and Solomon, we see central military authority being more effective in an emergency and see the military leader subsequently taking over the administration, taking over the government. This is followed by increasing centralisation of power and the formation of an establishment (secular and religious) which serves the source of power and is used to oppress the people. Military personnel are used to give and obey orders but the skills involved are completely different from those expected from an effective manager. In general, while authoritarian organisations are effective in an emergency they are generally ineffective and wasteful at other times. What we see is increasing centralisation of power, increasing corruption and oppression, increasing enslavement of the people with consequent social stress and subsequent destruction. {2}


Struggle of the Maccabees {2}

To begin with, the maccabees were united and struggled against brutal foreign oppression. They struggled for Torah, freedom and the people. Against them were foreign invaders who believed in slavery and who were trying to impose their way of life through imposing their beliefs.

After three generations the situation had changed and we now see very clearly increasing internal confrontation, a struggle between people and Torah on the one hand against oppressive rulers and their oppressing establishment on the other.

Following the popular rebellion for Judaism, for Jewish law and thus for freedom, the rulers formed a dynasty and a supporting establishment, had tasted power and meant to have it. Hence they battled for power with each other, allied themselves with foreign powers against each other. In so doing they divided the people and weakened all.

The oppression of Jew by Jew, of the Jewish people by their own rulers and establishment, and the resulting struggle between them defeated both. It ended Maccabean rule, lost the land which had been gained, resulted in enormous hardship to the people. It resulted in the handing over of the country and its people to Herod and the subsequent introduction by Herod of 'hellenisation'. This meant the introduction and popularisation of a foreign ideology, supporting and based on slavery. It was indeed this which the Maccabees had revolted against.

The Jewish leadership, the Jewish establishment, supported centralised power, the oppressive ruling authority and its influence, since the ideas which were being imported helped them to oppress their own people. In so doing they disregarded the welfare of the people, disregarded Jewish law, disregarded the intent and purpose of Jewish law.

Outstanding is that the people were unable to restrain their leaders. The result was total destruction of people and country, and the dispersion of the Jewish people.


Church, State and Religion

Consider the subtle relations between church and state. They are important because the Church is interested in and cares for people while the state looks after the material problems of life.

But then there are different kinds of states and different kinds of churches.

Some states consist of governments which serve the rulers by oppressing the people so that they can be exploited and such states stifle opposition and protest. Here those at the top and experts who in reality serve the rulers, tell people what they should do and have to do.

Other states consist of governments where those who govern serve the people and are accountable to them, where decisions are made at the lowest possible level by referendum with experts explaining the consequences both ways when a decision has to be made.

Some churches serve the rulers and then these theological 'experts' in effect condition the people into gladly serving the rulers, into gladly allowing themselves to be exploited, the general approach then being 'gladly accept the tough life you are leading, the reward will come in a next life'.

Other churches preach that it is the will of God that all people are equal, that no person may exploit another, that it is the role of the establishment to serve the people.


The modern Jew is being taught, is being misled into thinking, that the Cause-and-effect Relationship has merely religious significance. This is intended to convey that whether or not one follows these laws is purely a matter between oneself and God alone, that God can be persuaded to forgive and forget, that the consequences of one's actions can be avoided. Hence the synagogues overflow at the New Year and on the Day of Atonement, that is on the day of judgement and on the day the verdict is decided.

Instead, what Jews should and have to be taught is that the social laws and the social system of the Torah have to be applied in our daily lives and that neglecting to do this results inevitably in loss of country and persecution.

The relations between church and state are subtle and important and particularly so when considering the Jewish religion and Israel.


Holding the Establishment Accountable

The interests of the so-called establishment have apparently remained unchanged. Today's establishment seems to see its position of authority, patronage and influence over the community threatened by Jewish social legislation.

Actively competing with each other for adherents and for funds, the establishments of the different Jewish sects maintain that their own form of belief and practice is right and that every one else is wrong. So they do not wish to acknowledge that any part of what they teach may need amending, could possibly be wrong.

Further, this is the end of the twentieth century and the people are educated. Hence unable once again to merely argue away the religious social legislation in the face of an educated people, wishing to avoid public controversy, knowledge about the overriding importance of the social laws of the Torah is not being passed on to the population.

It was because the people could not ensure observance of the laws by their establishment that the country was lost on each occasion in the past {2}. What determined the outcome in each case was that the people did not hold their establishment accountable for what the establishment was doing.

If the people remain unaware of what happened in the past because the knowledge about the overriding importance of the social laws of the Torah is being kept from them, then the people are unable to pressurise the establishment into adhering to the social system and social laws of the Torah. In that case the loss of the country and later persecution of Jews is inevitable.

If you are poor, if life is tough and harsh, if survival depends on obeying the orders of secular or religious hierarchies, if you are oppressed and/or exploited, then have another look. The only way to improve the quality of life is to struggle so as to put into effect and live according to the social laws and system of the Torah.

The Jewish religion teaches that it is the will of God that all people are equal, that no person may exploit another, that it is the role of the establishment to serve the people and not that of the people to serve the establishment. It teaches as a matter of law that all are equal and may neither exploit nor be exploited.

It takes a good deal of stamina to tell one's students or congregation that what was taught or preached only yesterday needs updating in the light of new knowledge, or to take time off from day-to-day activities to keep up-to-date. But we live in times of change, in times of accelerating change, and updating one's knowledge has by itself become a necessary day-to-day activity without which the expert cannot remain 'expert' for very long. And this applies to both secular and religious experts.


A NEW FACTOR HAS ENTERED INTO THE EQUATION

This is the end of the twentieth century and a new factor has entered the equation. {6, 7}

Up to now it did not really matter whether a few people suffered, whether the odd village was wiped out in a war fought for the benefit of another establishment, whether a whole country and its people were devastated. Of course, it did matter but what I mean is that it did not mean the end of humanity. The point is that as a result of the impact of technology and increasing speed of transport and communication it is possible for the first time in the history of human beings on this planet for just one or only a very few socially irresponsible persons to do something or to introduce changes which could destroy us all as human beings or else make this planet uninhabitable for human beings.

I showed ten years ago in 'Social Responsibility, Profits and Social Accountability' {6} that we were experiencing a sequence of accidents and catastrophes which were occurring more and more frequently and were affecting more and more people.

Since then most people have become aware of this. But I also showed what could be done about this trend of events.

So now we do not have a choice. If we do not now observe and put into effect the social system of the Torah and its code of behaviour then the planet will become uninhabitable for human beings.


CONCLUSIONS

In everyday language and in the language of science we know that people are affected and changed by their own behaviour and that communities stand or fall according to their actions, as a result of the behaviour of the community as a whole. Oppress and exploit and your community will get weaker and weaker and fail in the end. Follow a pattern of social behaviour and establish a social system which are based on social fairness and justice and you will gain strength and prosper and this will continue while you are doing so.

You know as well as I do that the developed world has a high standard of living which resulted from the application of a humane system of behaviour, generally referred to as democracy. Underdeveloped countries with authoritarian governments, on the other hand, have extremely low standards of living and this is not improving relative to that of developed countries, the differentials continuing to increase.

And what we have seen here that it is up to us whether or not we follow the Torah's social laws and apply its social system in our daily lives. We know what the inevitable consequences will be, either way {1, 9}. The dire consequences of not putting into effect the social system of the Torah are quite inevitable.

Twice already were Jews driven out of Israel because the social system of the Torah was bypassed and rejected {2} and the third time is coming closer year by year.

The right to the land of Israel depends on following the social laws. The people have to be told about the relevance of the social laws under present conditions {5}.



NOTES AND REFERENCES


NOTES

<1> The Torah, that is the five books of Moses
(Also called Pentateuch; Part of Old Testament).


REFERENCES

{1}     The Social Cause-and-Effect Relationship
Manfred Davidmann
     
{2}   History Speaks: Monarchy, Exile and Maccabees
Manfred Davidmann
     
{3}   What Actually Happened in Israel: The Truth about Hillel and his Times
Manfred Davidmann
     
{4}   One Law for All: Freedom Now, Freedom for Ever
Manfred Davidmann
     
{5}   The Way Ahead: Policies for a Better Future
Manfred Davidmann
     
{6}   Social Responsibility, Profits and Social Accountability
Manfred Davidmann
     
{7}   The Will to Work (Motivation)
Manfred Davidmann
     
{8}   Causes of Antisemitism
Manfred Davidmann
     
{9}   Jewish Belief and Practice
Manfred Davidmann
(See Part 3: Social Cause-and-Effect Relationship in the Torah)


Relevant Current and Associated Works

Other relevant current and associated reports by Manfred Davidmann:
     
     
Title   Description
     
Struggle for Freedom: The Social Cause-and-Effect Relationship   Major review and analysis of the social laws and social system of the Torah and of the Social Cause-and-Effect Relationship. Also reviews the role of religion and of Judaism under modern conditions.
     
History Speaks: Monarchy, Exile and Maccabees   Major review and analysis of Jewish history, of King Solomon's reign and of the Maccabean dynasty, locating the causes of subsequent defeat of the people and loss of country. Covers Jewish belief and practice, social conditions and government.
     
At the Time of Jesus, This is What Actually Happened in Israel: The Truth about Hillel and his Times   Factual conclusive document describing what happened at the time of Jesus to Jewish belief and practice, based on research into texts published close to the events. A fully documented record of previously undiscovered material in the Talmud about Hillel.
     
One Law for All: Freedom Now, Freedom for Ever   Document describing the struggles within Judaism which accompanied the birth of Rabbinical Judaism, how people felt about what was happening, how the Talmud recorded events and what would have to be done to reverse the trend of events.
     
How the Human Brain Developed and How the Human Mind Works   Describes clearly what happens while sleeping, role of dreaming, meaning of dreams. Functioning of the two halves of the human brain is related to the autonomic nervous and the immune systems. Shows how human behaviour is affected by primitive instincts.
     
The Will to Work: What People Struggle to Achieve   Major review, analysis and report about motivation and motivating. Covers remuneration and job satisfaction as well as the factors which motivate. Develops a clear definition of 'motivation'. Lists what people are striving and struggling to achieve, and progress made, in corporations, communities, countries.
     
What People are Struggling Against: How Society is Organised for Controlling and Exploiting People   Report of study undertaken to find out why people have to struggle throughout their adult lives, in all countries, organisations and levels, to maintain and improve their standard of living and quality of life. Reviews what people are struggling against.
     
Democracy Under Attack: Top-level Leadership and Decision-taking   Discusses and illustrates the internal struggles taking place in political parties and all other organisations, for achieving greater democracy and against those wishing to overpower democratic processes of decision-taking.
     
Family, Sex and the Individual; Women's Liberation, Feminism and Community   This report investigates casual sex and its effects on individuals, family and community. It examines the role of the family in bringing up children and relates dominance and confrontation within the family to that in the working environment.
     
Causes of Antisemitism   Shows that there are two separate root causes of antisemitism. One cause can be remedied by increasing peoples' awareness, the other is under the control of the Jewish people and can be remedied from within.
     
Social Responsibility, Profits and Social Accountability   Incidents, disasters and catastrophes are here put together as individual case studies and reviewed as a whole. We are facing a sequence of events which are increasing in frequency, severity and extent. There are sections about what can be done about this, on community aims and community leadership, on the world-wide struggle for social accountability.
     
Social Responsibility and Accountability: Summary   Outlines basic causes of socially irresponsible behaviour and ways of solving the problem. Statement of aims. Public demonstrations and protests as essential survival mechanisms. Whistle-blowing. Worldwide struggle to achieve social accountability.
     
Kibbutzim   Kibbutzim are successful co-operative communities now experiencing both practical and ideological problems. So the study reviews what is taking place to find reasons for success and causes of problems.
     
ORIGIN OF CHRISTIANITY and JUDAISM   Proves by methods of biblical archaeology what Jesus really taught, how Paul changed what Jesus had taught, how this became Christianity's official doctrine. Outstanding are sections on Paul and the Gospels, on concurrent corresponding changes in Judaism.
     
Liberation Theology: Basis - Past - Present - Future   Discusses Christianity's origins using Christian and Jewish sources. Liberation theologians emphasise compassion and leadership in the struggle for a better life. Shows that one can analyse effectively how the Christian Canon developed.
     
Jewish Belief and Practice   Provides the required background knowledge of the essential core of Jewish belief and practice for drawing the only possible conclusion that the procedure called 'Prosbul' is contrary to the laws and intent of the Torah. The Prosbul is then annulled.
     
Policies for a Better Future   Brings together findings and conclusions based on extensive research reported over a period of time by Manfred Davidmann in other publications. Relevant to individuals, communities, countries and the whole planet, it summarises what needs to be achieved.
     
Directing and Managing Change     How to plan ahead, find best strategies, decide and implement, agree targets and objectives, monitor and control progress, evaluate performance, carry out appraisal and target-setting interviews. Describes proved, practical and effective techniques.

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Relevant Subject Index Pages and Site Overview


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