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Throughout his whole life as Prophet he (Mohammed) struggled against the powerful Meccan family which dominated Mecca, against the Quraysh. They first opposed and then persecuted him and his followers for 10 years, and then he fought them for another 10 years till he won and then he died.

So we need to know just what Mohammed taught which upset the elite so thoroughly and persistently. So what did Mohammed teach which caused him and his followers to be so harshly opposed and so actively persecuted? It is this which I will be exploring in ... .

From Prophet Mohammed's Struggle for a Better Life for All

Religion teaches what should be done and what must not be done, and at times what must be done, in the light of God's will that people behave like human beings towards each other and have a good life by following rules of behaviour revealed by God.

And arguments started about the source and extent of 'divine right', about the extent to which clerics ought to be taking part in or controlling secular (social) decision-taking in the name of religion. ...

Since then we see continuous confrontations and struggle between secular and religious hierarchies and figureheads, between state (government) and religious authorities, about what should and should not be done, about what must and must not be done, about who should be making these and similar decisions. About the personal role, authority, pay, standard of living and quality of life of the decision-takers.

From The Divine Right to Rule

The core argument being debated during the early period of Abbasid rule was the question of whether the Koran was 'created' or 'uncreated'. An apparently vague and hypothetical theological question. But far from it. People were persecuted and suffered on both sides, the outcome shaped Muslim belief and practice to this day and illustrates the conflicts and confrontations we see today between Muslim rulers and Muslim clerics.

From The Divine Right to Rule

Al-Bukhari's collection 'Sahih al-Bukhari' contains different versions of the two main traditions as well as other related subsidiary traditions. To understand what took place we need to look at the main traditions and their differing versions, need to become aware of what they are in fact stating. The outcome is an unexpected, surprising and fascinating insight into what Mohammed revealed and taught.

From Compiling the Koran: Hadiths (Traditions) State the Underlying Reality

Mohammed's social teachings are here stated from Koran chapters (suras) singled out by 'Abbreviated Letters'. Those recording the word of Allah as taught by Mohammed are drawn from all the suras (chapters) beginning with the abbreviated letters 'ha mim' (suras 40-41, 43-46), but not from the one sura (sura 42) which begins with the abbreviated letters 'ha mim: ain sin qaf'.

Mohammed teaches that God's benevolent social laws and system have to be applied by people in their daily life. The content of the corresponding compassionate and benevolent teachings are described as are the Koran's stated rewards for following them and the consequences of ignoring or opposing them.

Consider these quotations from the Koran, which speak for themselves:

The book (al-kitab, the Pentateuch) came down (tanzil) from God, the mighty, the wise-one.
The arabic phrase for the Holy Koran is 'al-Koran'. The Pentateuch (the Five Books of Moses) is 'al-kitab', a religious book is 'mushaf'.
{40:002, 45:002, 46:002}

We gave Moses guidance (al-huda)
huda: guidance or guide.
and gave the book (al-kitab, the Pentateuch) to the Children of Israel to inherit.
A guide (huda) and a reminder (warning) to people who understand.
To those who understand its commandments (message), it is a guide (about what is 'good', about what to do) and a warning (about what is evil, about what not to do).

In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful,
by the book (al-kitab, the Pentateuch) that explains clearly,
We made it an arabic teaching (qur'an, koran) so that you become wiser.
The word 'koran' (Arabic: qur'an) came from the Syro-Aramaic 'qeryan' (current at the time of Mohammed) meaning teachings or lectures.
It (the teaching) is from the mother text which we have,
'umm al-kitab': the Pentateuch referred to as mother text, as source text.
sublime and full of wisdom.

See report
Prophet Mohammed's Word of Allah and the Voice of the Ruling Elite
from which this theme's information was extracted.

Also see
The Right to the Land of Israel
The God-given Human Rights, Social Laws and Social System,
Judaism, Christianity and Islam (Church and State, Government and Religion)

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Relevant Current and Associated Works

Relevant current and associated reports by Manfred Davidmann:
Title   Description
Prophet Mohammed's Struggle for a Better Life for All     Mohammed's struggle for recognition of his mission and message against the powerful Meccan ruling elite. They opposed and then persecuted him and his followers for ten years, following which he fought them for ten years till he won and then he died.
Text, Language, Dialect and Interpretation of the Koran   How the written Arabic language developed from the time of Mohammed and how the Koran was assembled. How recorded letters and symbols were used to state the meaning of words. Compares 'readings' and interpretations.
The Divine Right to Rule   The struggle for power and control over the Muslim community after Mohammed died and how Muslim belief and practice evolved under the caliphs. These events and struggles formed Sunnism and Shiism, shaped the Koran and Muslim belief and practice.
Compiling the Koran: Hadiths (Traditions) State the Underlying Reality   Zaid bin Thabit compiled the Koran, Caliph Uthman had an official version prepared. Mohammed taught that people (believers) should have a good life, the ruling elite considered that people should serve willingly.
Uthman's Rearrangement of the Chronological (as revealed) Koran's Chapters   Chapters (suras) marked by 'abbreviated letters' show how the sequence of the Koran's chapters was changed. The effects of the changes on the record of Mohammed's preaching and teaching are described as are the doctrines of 'Abrogation' and 'Consensus'.
Prophet Mohammed's Word of Allah and the Voice of the Ruling Elite   Mohammed's social teachings are stated from chapters (suras) singled out by 'Abbreviated Letters', statements of revelation from compassionate and caring Allah. It seems that some self-seeking doctrines were added later by the ruling elite of that time.
Muslims and Jews   Includes a comprehensive summary table of the struggles of the Muslims while Mohammed was alive, including their conflicts with the Jewish Medinan clans. The conclusions are directly relevant to understanding present tensions and conflicts within Islam.

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Relevant Subject Index Pages and Site Overview

The Site Overview page has links to all individual Subject Index Pages which between them list the works by Manfred Davidmann which are available on the Internet, with short descriptions and links for downloading.

To see the Site Overview page, click Overview

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01/08/04 Compiled
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